Forest condition: Sapling/Seedling Forest (Early-Successional)
Habitat Attribute: Residual Canopy Trees
Landscapes: Within small landscapes (e.g., watersheds, townships, sections), provide >30% of the area as early successional forest with site-level habitat conditions as described below.
Sites: Where ecologically appropriate in early successional forests >20 ha (50 ac) provide
– >3 1-ha (2.5 ac) areas (aggregate clumps) with 10–30 trees/ha (4–12/ac) >12 m (40 ft) high, and within the early successional habitat, not adjacent to the forest edge
– remainder of the harvest unit should average 3–5 trees/ ha (1–2/ac) >12 m (40 ft) high, dispersed relatively equally throughout the harvest unit (dispersed trees)
– retained large trees should be >50% hemlocks or true firs to provide preferred nest trees, and have ≥25% foliage volume for nesting substrates.
– retain suppressed or understory plantation trees in the harvest unit (>13 ha [5/ac]) 3–12 m (10–40 ft) high
Sites: In thinned sites, maintain 10–50% canopy cover with some areas 10–20% canopy cover.
Sites: In post-fire habitat, maintain >40% as unsalvaged, and where salvage is occurring, retain all trees and snags >51 cm (21 in) dbh and >50% of those 27–50 cm (12–20 in) dbh.
Habitat Conservation Strategies
– In addition to green-tree retention, seed tree, shelterwood, or group selection cuts may be used to meet the biological objectives.
– In reforestation areas, include at least 10% hemlock or true fir seedlings, and retain these trees through thinnings and harvest.
– Retain residual clumps of older forest in association with retained green-trees to increase edge and reduce the likelihood that retained trees will be lost to windtrow.
– Retain large trees in association with retained large snags where snags can serve as guard and foraging perches.
– Maintain retained large canopy trees through forest development and recruit replacement green-trees at each harvest entry.
Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.