Author: John Alexander

Black-headed Grosbeak

Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)
Habitat: Riparian Closed Woodland or Forest
Habitat Attribute: mixed hardwood and conifer trees

Habitat Objectives (Sites)
Riparian Closed Woodland or Forest in the following conditions:
COMING SOON

Population Objectives (Sites)
Target Densities in Suitable Habitat:
Puget Lowlands:
– North: >0.06 birds/ha
– South: >0.06 birds/ha
Willamette Valley:
– North: >0.51 birds/ha
– South: >0.51 birds/ha
Klamath Mountains:
– Umpqua: >0.54 birds/ha
– Rogue: >0.29 birds/ha

Rockwell, S. M., J. L. Stephens, and B. Altman. 2021. Population and habitat objectives for landbirds in grassland, oak, and riparian habitats in the Puget Lowlands, Willamette Valley, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Version 2.0. Prepared for Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight, Pacific Birds Habitat Joint Venture, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Forest Service. Klamath Bird Observatory, Ashland, OR, and American Bird Conservancy, Corvallis, OR

California Towhee

California Towhee (Pipilo crissalis)
Habitat: Oak-Chaparral
Habitat Attribute: dense shrub cover with herbaceous openings

Habitat Objectives (Sites)
Mature or young savannah in oak-chaparral in the following conditions:
– canopy cover <30%
– canopy and subcanopy conifer cover <10%
– shrub cover 40-70%
– interspersion of shrub and herbaceous cover with each >30%

Population Objectives (Sites)
Target Densities in Suitable Habitat:
Klamath Mountains:
– Umpqua: >0.02 birds/ha
– Rogue: >0.21 birds/ha

Rockwell, S. M., J. L. Stephens, and B. Altman. 2021. Population and habitat objectives for landbirds in grassland, oak, and riparian habitats in the Puget Lowlands, Willamette Valley, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Version 2.0. Prepared for Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight, Pacific Birds Habitat Joint Venture, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Forest Service. Klamath Bird Observatory, Ashland, OR, and American Bird Conservancy, Corvallis, OR

Cassin’s Vireo

Cassin’s Vireo (Vireo cassinii)
Habitat: Oak-Pine
Habitat Attribute: moderate to high canopy and subcanopy cover

Habitat Objectives (Sites)
Oak-Pine forest in the following conditions:
– canopy cover >65%
– subcanopy cover >20%
– shrub cover 30-70%
– mean tree dbh >23 cm (9 in)

Population Objectives (Sites)
Target Densities in Suitable Habitat:
Puget Lowlands:
– North: >0.01 birds/ha
– South: >0.09 birds/ha
Willamette Valley:
– North: >0.02 birds/ha
– South: >0.14 birds/ha)
Klamath Mountains:
– Umpqua: >0.07 birds/ha
– Rogue: >0.17 birds/ha

Rockwell, S. M., J. L. Stephens, and B. Altman. 2021. Population and habitat objectives for landbirds in grassland, oak, and riparian habitats in the Puget Lowlands, Willamette Valley, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Version 2.0. Prepared for Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight, Pacific Birds Habitat Joint Venture, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Forest Service. Klamath Bird Observatory, Ashland, OR, and American Bird Conservancy, Corvallis, OR

Chipping Sparrow

Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)
Habitat: Oak Savannah or Open Woodland
Habitat Attribute: low-statured herbaceous ground cover

Habitat Objectives (Sites)
Oak Savannah or Open Woodland in the following conditions:
– canopy cover <50%
– shrub cover <20% interspersed with herbaceous openings
– herbaceous cover >50%
– low-statured herbaceous cover – mean <15 cm [6 in] high

Population Objectives (Sites)
Target Densities in Suitable Habitat:
Puget Lowlands:
– North: >0.85 birds/ha
– South: >0.61 birds/ha
Willamette Valley:
– North: >0.04 birds/ha
– South: >0.13 birds/ha
Klamath Mountains:
– Umpqua: >0.22 birds/ha
– Rogue: >0.33 birds/ha
maintain cowbird parasitism rates <10%

Rockwell, S. M., J. L. Stephens, and B. Altman. 2021. Population and habitat objectives for landbirds in grassland, oak, and riparian habitats in the Puget Lowlands, Willamette Valley, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Version 2.0. Prepared for Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight, Pacific Birds Habitat Joint Venture, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Forest Service. Klamath Bird Observatory, Ashland, OR, and American Bird Conservancy, Corvallis, OR

Hammond’s Flycatcher

Hammond’s Flycatcher
Forest Stage: Mature/Young Forest
Habitat Attribute: Open mid-Story

Habitat Objectives
Landscapes: Within small landscapes (e.g., watershed, township, section), provide ≥6 blocks of late-successional and young forest >20 ha (50 ac) or one block >120 ha (300 ac) per square mile with site-level habitat conditions as described below.
Landscapes: Within large landscapes (i.e., >1,000 ha [2,500 ac]) maintain large core areas of unfragmented coniferous forest including
– 80–90% of the area in high canopy cover (i.e., >80%) of coniferous forest
– 10–20% of the area in early successional habitat
– <1% cover of deciduous forest habitat in drier upland habitats (i.e., with low stream density).
Sites: Where ecologically appropriate in forests >40 years old provide
– forest patches >15 ha (42 ac)
– canopy closure >50%
– a relative stem density of 0.2 to 0.3 to maintain an open mid-story (Relative stem density is the ratio of actual stem density to the maximum density available).
Sites: Riparian buffer zones within harvest units should be >70 m (230 ft) wide to provide suitable habitat, and should meet site-level habitat conditions described above.

Habitat Conservation Strategies
– Conduct light to moderate single-layered thinning from below to reduce the density of trees and open-up the area below canopy foliage, but do not encourage layered understory development characteristics of variable-spaced and variable-layered thinning.
– Conduct habitat management in areas without an extensive riparian or deciduous tree component.

Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.

Hermit Thrush

Hermit Thrush
Forest Type: Klamath mountain mixed conifer and mixed hardwood-conifer forests
Habitat Attribute: Shrub-herbaceous interspersion understory

Habitat Objectives
Landscapes: Within 1,000 ha (2,500 ac) blocks, provide patch sizes according to the following forest cover amounts for high suitability habitat:
– >90% forest cover = >8 ha (20 ac) patch size
– >80% forest cover = >26 ha (64 ac) patch size
– >70% forest cover = >66 ha (163 ac) patch size –
– >60% forest cover = >156 ha (385 ac) patch size
– >50% forest cover = >353 ha (873 ac) patch size
Sites: Where ecologically appropriate, maintain an understory ratio of shrub-herbaceous (includes bare ground) cover within a range of 30–70% for each parameter.

Habitat Conservation Strategies
– Remove or explicitly control the timing and intensity of grazing to develop and promote the long-term persistence and balance of shrub and herbaceous communities.
– Promote understory growth through natural disturbance or management that breaks up the forest canopy yet still maintains the dominance of a mid- or late-successional forest.
– Where ecologically appropriate in drier mixed conifer forests, maintain large forest tracts (i.e., minimize fragmentation) for highly suitable habitat.

Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.

Hermit Warbler

Hermit Warbler
Forest condition: Mature/Young Forest (Multi-layered/understory reinitiating)
Habitat Attribute: Closed Canopy (of coniferous trees) forest patches >42 ha (101 ac) are necessary for their occurrence.

Habitat Objectives
Landscapes: At small landscape-levels (e.g., watersheds, townships, sections), provide >55% of the area as suitable nesting habitat (forest >40 years old with adequate canopy cover as described below), and >25% of the suitable habitat should be young forest. w
Sites: Where ecologically appropriate in forests >30 years old provide
– average tree dbh >30 cm (12 in)
– >90% canopy closure
– a dominance of Douglas-fir trees
Sites: Riparian buffer zones within harvest units should be >70 m (230 ft) wide to provide suitable habitat, and should meet site-level habitat conditions described above.

Habitat Conservation Strategies
– In forests managed for wood products, extend rotation ages to lengthen the period of time that the forest is available as suitable habitat.
– Conduct light to moderate thinning early in forest development (<30 years-old) to promote development of large crowns to increase habitat suitability later in forest development

Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.

Hutton’s Vireo

Hutton’s Vireo (Vireo huttoni)
Habitat: Oak-Hardwood
Habitat Attribute: moderate subcanopy or shrub cover

Habitat Objectives (Sites)
Oak-Hardwood in the following conditions:
– canopy cover >50%
– subcanopy and/or shrub cover combined >60%

Population Objectives (Sites)
Target Densities in Suitable Habitat:
Puget Lowlands:
-North: >0.07 birds/ha
-South: >0.02 birds/ha)
Willamette Valley:
-North: >0.03 birds/ha
-South: >0.06 birds/ha
Klamath Mountains:
-Umpqua: >0.06 birds/ha
-Rogue: >0.09 birds/ha

Rockwell, S. M., J. L. Stephens, and B. Altman. 2021. Population and habitat objectives for landbirds in grassland, oak, and riparian habitats in the Puget Lowlands, Willamette Valley, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Version 2.0. Prepared for Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight, Pacific Birds Habitat Joint Venture, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Forest Service. Klamath Bird Observatory, Ashland, OR, and American Bird Conservancy, Corvallis, OR

Lazuli Bunting

Lazuli Bunting
Forest Type: Klamath Mountains Mixed Conifer and Mixed Hardwood-Conifer Forests
Habitat Attribute: Post-Wildfire

Habitat Objectives
Sites: Maintain post-wildfire vegetation, especially deciduous shrub/tree vegetation, where opportunities exist or can be managed for with <20% live tree cover and a shrub-herbaceous (includes bare ground) cover ratio that is within a range of 30-70% for each parameter.

Habitat Conservation Strategies
– Discontinue use of herbicides for deciduous tree and shrub control for species associated with deciduous vegetation in post-fire habitat.
– Restore fire as a management tool where ecologically appropriate.
– Maintain areas of unaltered post-fire habitat where regeneration can occur naturally.
– Retain and encourage the development of shrubs within post-fire habitat
– Minimize the impact to shrubs during management activities in post-fire habitat

Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.

Nashville Warbler

Nashville Warbler
Forest Type: Klamath Mountains Mixed Conifer and Mixed Hardwood-Conifer Forests
Habitat Attribute: Dense Shrub Understory

Habitat Objectives
Sites: Where ecologically appropriate (e.g., wetter sites), maintain or provide >40% understory shrub layer cover.

Habitat Conservation Strategies
– Promote understory growth through natural disturbance or management that breaks up the forest canopy yet still maintains the dominance of a mid- or late-successional forest.
– Discontinue use of herbicides for deciduous tree and shrub control.

Altman, B. and J.D. Alexander. 2012. Habitat conservation for landbirds in coniferous forests of western Oregon and Washington. Version 2.0. Oregon-Washington Partners in Flight (www.orwapif.org) and American Bird Conservancy and Klamath Bird Observatory.

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